Diversity and Bioactives of Secondary Metabolites of Ganoderma leucocontextum
1State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3 Park 1, Beichen West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China
2Savaid Medical School, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China
Ganoderma leucocontextum contains a large number of unrecognized constituents including polyphenol, polyketone, terpenes, and polysaccharides, which have exhibited significant pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-metabolic diseases. We broadly investigate the secondary metabolites and visualize the spatial distribution in the fruiting bodies of cultivated G. leucocontextum by the MS/MS molecular networks and MALDI-MSI mass spectrometry imaging. A total of 53 compounds were identified, including 18 novel triterpenes and 28 known tripterpenes, as well as 3 meroterpenoids and 4 alkaloids. In consideration of the richness, species-specificity, and pharmacological functions, ganoleucoin E and ganoleucoin K were chosen as the quality markers. The extracts of G. leucocontextum perform well in improving glucose and lipid metabolism, but the mechanisms are still not clearly understood. Gut microbes are the essential symbionts of the human body, playing critical roles in regulating host metabolism and immune homeostasis. Based on the metabolic syndrome mice model assay, the microbiome-mediated folic acid-intestine-liver axis, succinic acid-intestine-brain axis, and branched-chain amino acids-gut-heart axis are involved in the treatment of diseases caused by insulin resistance.