The genus Hygrophorus Fr. (Fungi, Basidiomycota, Agaricales, Hygrophoraceae) is a striking mushroom group with important edible and ecological values. China is rich in Hygrophorus species, to clarify the species diversity of Hygrophorus over 400 specimens were collected in the past 13 years. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the following species complex are rich in species diversity: the H. eburneus-complex, the H. pudorinus-complex, H. agathosmus-complex, and H. russula-complex. Taking the H. russula complex for example, the popular edible mushroom in southwestern China is a new species, i.e. H. deliciosus; apart from this species, four other species are confirmed in China, i.e. H. orientalis, H. parvirussula, H. qinggangjun and H. yunnanensis.