Potential Fungi Isolated from Rotting Mangrove Wood and the Atmosphere in Crude Oil Degradation
Sitompul Afrida1,2, Prapti Ira Kumalasari2, Jan Friadi Sinaga2, Amiruddin2, Dede Heri Yuli Yanto3, Sakae Horisawa1*, Yutaka Tamai4
1School ofScience Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, Kami City, Kochi, 782-8502, Japan
2STT Migas Balikpapan, Jalan Soekarno Hatta Km. 8, Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, 76125, Indonesia
3Research Center for Applied Microbiology, National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN), Soekarno Science and Technology Park, Cibinong Science Center, Jalan Raya Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong, Bogor, 16911, Indonesia
4Department of Forest Science, Hokkaido University, N9W9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8589, Japan
Present-day economic and social activity (e.g., transportation, industry, residential, commercial, and electric power) depends on petroleum hydrocarbon products (crude oil, motor oil, or diesel oil). The main environmental contamination events occur throughout production, transportation, coastal oil refining, shipping, offshore drilling, unintentional spills, and consumption. Therefore, this research focuses on the search for fungi that have the potential to degrade crude oil. Seventeen strains were isolated from rotten mangrove wood, and nine strains from the atmosphere. We screened the fungi based on the biomass they produced in a liquid medium containing mineral salt and crude oil (crude oil A, B, and C). The fungi of Trichoderma sp. MG-07 (rotting mangrove wood) and Fusarium sp. ATM-C4 (atmosphere) were selected because they produced high biomass compared to other strains. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis indicated that MG-07 degraded 70%–80% of the typical aliphatic compounds in COB and COC in 2 weeks of incubation but only slightly degraded COA. Meanwhile, ATM-C4 degraded COB and COC by 30-40% within two weeks. Increasing the concentration of glucose and Tween 80 improved the ability of MG-07 to degrade crude oil. Strain MG-07 also showed the ability to grow on media with a salinity of 1%-5%. This indicates that MG-07 can be used for the bioremediation of crude oil pollution in the marine environment.