Post-Water-Extract of Hirsutella sinensis mycelium as potential nutritional supplement to prevent muscle atrophy in C2C12 cell line
Bi-Hua Yang1, Tsung-Ju Li1, Ting-Yu Lu1, Li-Ching Wang2, Yen-Lien Chen1 and Chin-Chu Chen1,3,*
1Biotech Research Institute, Grape King Bio Ltd., Taoyuan 325, Taiwan
2Graduate Institute of Food Safety, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
3Institute of Food Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan
The prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly patients over the age of 65 is a growing concern in hospitals due to its association with acute and chronic disease states. This condition is characterized by muscle atrophy, which is caused by an imbalance between protein synthesis and breakdown rates in the body. Sarcopenia can lead to an increased risk of falls and disability due to resulting muscle weakness. Recent research has shown that Hirsutella sinensis, the asexual morph of Cordyceps sinensis, has anti-inflammatory, anti-liver cancer properties and immune regulation capabilities. However, the cultivation of this strain can be challenging due to its specific cooling requirements. In this study, 40-Ton liquid fermentation technology was utilized to grow H. sinensis and extract its active ingredients for further research on muscle development. The findings revealed that the water extraction layer of H. sinensis contains polysaccharides that can increase the diameter of myotubes by 221% based on H&E staining and enhance their maturation. After analyzing the post-water extract fractions, the HSW-2 fraction was found to decrease Murf gene expression in RT-PCR by approximately 17.65% at a concentration of 100 μg/ml. Additionally, it showed significant improvement in MYHC, with a ~55.2% increase in Western blot compared to the damage group. Importantly, the results showed no toxicity at a concentration of up to 400 μg/ml for muscle cells. This study suggests that the post-water extraction layer of H. sinensis may be a safe and effective nutritional supplement to alleviate muscle atrophy and improve muscle health in the elderly.