Diversity and Host-recurrence of Diatrypaceous Fungi from a Protected Area in Thailand
Naghmeh Afshari1,2,3, Antonio Roberto Gomes de Farias3, Nakarin Suwannarach1,2, Chitrabhanu S. Bhunjun3,4, Kevin D. Hyde3,4, and Saisamorn Lumyong1,2*
1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand
2Center of Excellence in Microbial Diversity and Sustainable Utilization, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
3Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand
4School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand
Different fungal taxa have been reported from diverse lignicolous substrates in terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Members of Diatrypaceae (Xylariales, Ascomycota) have a widespread distribution in these environments. It comprises 22 genera and around 1,500 species, mostly wood-dwelling saprobes of angiosperms.Documenting the host association of fungi is crucial to comprehend their interactions in the ecosystem. Therefore, this study aimed to survey wood-inhabiting Diatrypaceae from different hosts of Fabaceae (Dalbergia cana, D. cultrate, Afzelia xylocarpa) and Malvaceae (Nayariophyton zizyphifolium, Microcos paniculate). Dead branches were collected in Doi Tung National Park, Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Isolation was done by the single spore isolation method. Based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of the combined internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, and β-tubulin (tub2) gene, 12 diatrypaceous isolates were obtained, comprising four new species and eight new host records. Peroneutypa and Allodiatrype are the predominant genera and are less host specific (common in both host families); these genera were isolated from Nayariophyton, Microcos, Dalbergia, Afzelia and Nayariophyton, Dalbergia, Afzelia, respectively. Diatrypella and Paraeutypella were isolated from Nayariophyton, and Microcos. Lastly, Melanostictus was isolated only from Dalbergia. The diversity of decomposer fungi in tropical forests is likely influenced by the availability of hosts and their substrates in various decay states and microhabitats. In conclusion, most of them are unlikely to have a particular host association. Further investigations on the host association are needed to resolve fungal host recurrence in the Diatrypaceae.